On the picture: Ingeborg Kraus, Sonia Sanchez and Sheila Jeffreys.
Thank you for inviting me here to this international conference in Pamplona, to all the organizations that have made this possible, and especially Sara Vicente from the “Comision para la investigacion de malos tratos a mujeres”.
15 years ago, nearly at the same time, Sweden and Germany have choosen a complete different way how to deal with prostitution. Sweden decided to punish the sex buyers and Germany exactly the opposite. Time has gone and we can now see without any misunderstandings, which model has been the most protective for the women and the society.
Prostitution has always been legal in Germany, except a short period of time in the early 20th century. Germany instituted a law in 2002 that tried to make out of prostitution a job as any other. The politicians thought, that it wasn´t prostitution itself that was the problem, but the discrimination of the women by the society and the lack of rights they had. Considering the problem from this perspective, they wanted to strengthen the women as best as possible. (They said): Prostitution should not be seen any more as something “against the good morals“, but as a job. For now on, the women were considered as workers, “sex workers.” And if they are workers, they should have the same rights as any other worker that run a business or is employed somewhere, like having a social security or if their rights are not respected, they should have the right to enforce a claim by legal action. The state didn´t want to put any regulations concerning the sex practices. They said that nobody can say how people should have sex. As they run a business, they are also allowed to make publicity for it. So the new law cancelled the restriction of promoting prostitution. Pimping became forbidden.
Fifteen years after passing the law, what are the outcomes?
Before I came to this conference, I spoke to two police inspectors: Helmut Sporer and Manfred Paulus. Sporer said that prostitution has risen up to 30% since 2002. We have made a huge mistake implementing this law and have gone the totally wrong way. Prostitution has nothing to do with sexual liberation, it is just money that counts, Sporer says. The profit of this business is enormous: we are talking about 15 billion Euros of transactions every year.
We are observing an industrialization of prostitution:
- 3500 brothels are registered. This are the official numbers. They are many apartment brothels that are not registered.
- The creation of mega-brothels with the capacity to accommodate around 1000 buyers of sex at once and even more.
- The growth of demand.
- You no longer need to go to Thailand for sex tourism, you see sex tourists from around the world coming in groups — buses transport tourists from the Frankfurt airport directly to the mega-brothels.
We have “flat-rate” brothels. For 70 Euros they offer a beer, a sausage and unlimited women. A flat-rate brothel chain called “Pussy Club” made headlines when, on its opening day on June 2009, 1700 men lined up to get in. The long lineups outside women´s rooms lasted until closing time when many of the women collapsed from exhaustion, pain, injuries, and infections, including painful rashes and fungal infections that spread from their genitals down their legs.
We observe a reduction in the rate of pay for women: 30 Euros for sexual intercourse, while they must pay around 160 Euros for a room and 25,– Euro taxes per day; So they have to serve 6 men before starting earning money.
The working conditions have become disastrous. Theydeveloped “Verrichtungsboxen”, which means “things that are getting done in a box,” like cow boxes, without water, toilets, nothing.
You see a banalization of prostitution:
The law that forbids pimping was easy to bypass, they simply became hoteliers renting rooms to the sex workers. You have publicity everywhere. The official tourist guide of Munich runs promos for brothels.
- It is common for young people to celebrate school graduation at a brothel.
- Brothel keeper are being invited regularly to TV-Talk shows.
Or in Frankfurt: they celebrate an open house evening in the red light district. Even knowing this district is in the hands of the Hells Angels, so an organized crime group, the townspeople came to celebrate the day.
Violence against women became a structural violence, which means that society and the institutions (the political, educational, executive and judicative authority) are not questioning it anymore. It is internalized.
Here in my hometown, also last year: this is a normal clothing shop that had the idea to make publicity like this. Prostitution affects everybody, not only women in prostitution.
The goal of the law, which is reportedly protecting and supporting women in prostitution, has failed completely — of these 400,000 women, only 44 are registered as sole proprietorship businesses. More than half of these women work illegally, meaning they don’t have any social insurance and don’t have access to medical services in Germany. (1) So, even if they have the flu, they don’t have the possibility of visiting a doctor. There is a huge problem with pregnant women who can not pay for the abortion or birth their child in hospital. Very often, they abandon it.
And of course, this attracts the internationally organized crime. Manfred Paulus, a police officer that has worked for over 30 years in this milieu says that the red light district is a highly criminal environment that is in the hands of criminal gangs. The people who made the law in 2002 have been totally naive: they allowed criminals to become recognized business men. And this criminality will of course not stay behind the doors of the brothels. The state has become a pimp of the most vulnerable women.
Paulus says that Germany with this law became an Eldorado for traffickers, pimps and brothel owners. The women who come from abroad and work in the red light district don´t get to know the Germany that the Germans know and appreciate. No, they are prisoners of a parallel society that is highly criminal.
Those women live under constant fear: the fear of violent sex buyers, fear of not earning enough to pay the daily fixed costs, fear of getting sick, fear of getting pregnant, fear of the police, fear of the pimps, fear of the brothel owners, fear of the competition…
The law from 2002 didn´t help for preventing trafficking at all: in 2000, they were 151 persons condemned for trafficking, in 2011 only 32. The police recorded 636 cases of trafficked women in 2011, 3 times less than 10 years before. 13 of them were younger than 14 years old, 77 were under 18. The police feels helpless and complains that they have just little power to intervene, because without being able to dekiver an evidence for the crime, they can not enter the brothels. Also, the legal proceedings depend on the women´s statement. Very often they are too afraid to give testimony and the procedures get stopped. Just to give you an example: 2011 they were 482 legal procedures who could be finished, in 2015 only 364. This is from the trafficking report of 2015.
More than 50% of the trafficked women are under 21 years old.
You see growing perversion among sex buyers. Practices are becoming more dangerous with an increase in violence against women and a lack of protection for them. There have been research done that examines violence in prostitution:
- Zumbek’s 2001 study in Germany found out that 70% have been physically assaulted.
- A study by the German Ministry of Family in 2004 stated that: 82% have mentioned sustaining psychological violence, 92% have been sexually assaulted.
This is what the dominatrix Ellen Templin had already observed in 2007: “Since the reform you can see that not only have the advertisements become uninhibited, the buyers of sex have become more brutal. That’s from one day to the next. Nowadays, if you say, “No, I don’t do that,” You often get the response, “Come on; don’t be so difficult, it’s your job”. Before it was forbidden to demand unprotected sex. Today, buyers ask on the telephone if they can piss on your face, wanting to do it without protection, wanting to do it anally or orally. These days, it’s an everyday occurrence. Before, buyers still had a guilty conscience. That doesn’t exist anymore today, they want more and more.”
There is a “menu” circulating on the Internet, where buyers can choose what they want from a long à la carte list.
I will just give you a couple of examples:
- AF = Algierfranzösisch (Zungenanal) –Tongue anal
- AFF = Analer Faustfick (die ganze Hand im Hintereingang)– Anal Fist Fucking
- AO = alles ohne Gummi –everything without rubber
- Braun-weiß = Spiele mit Scheiße und Sperma –play with shit and sperma
- DP = Doppelpack (Sex mit zwei Frauen) oder: double Penetration (zwei Männer in einer Frau) –Sex with 2 women or double penetration (2 men in one woman)
- EL = Eierlecken –licking the balls
- FFT = Faustfick total –Fist Fuck totally
- FP = Französisch pur (Blasen ohne Gummi und ohne Aufnahme) –blowjob without rubber
- FT = Französisch total doppeldeutig: Blasen ohne Gummi mit Spermaschlucken und seltener: Blasen ohne Gummi bis zum Finale, aber ohne Schlucken –Blowjob without condom and with swallowing the sperma.
- GB = Gesichtsbesamung (manchmal auch Gangbang, also Gruppensex, aber mit deutlichem Männerüberschuss)Ejaculating in the face.
- GS = Gruppensex –Group Sex.
- Kvp = Kaviar Passiv (Frau lässt sich anscheißen) –Man shits on woman
- SW = Sandwich, eine Frau zwischen zwei Männern –one woman between 2 men
- tbl, = tabulos, ALLES ist erlaubt –without taboo, everything is allowed.
- ZA = Zungenanal (am / im Hintereingang lecken) – lick the anus.
There are sites on the internet where buyers share their experiences: here is what you can read there: “I spread her butt cheeks and slowly thrust my cock inside her, which was accompanied by a quiet moan. When I was close to finishing and fucked her more and more violently, she wanted me to stop and fuck her in her pussy. I didn’t want to. Sorry, Vanessa! After several more hard thrusts I shot my load and rammed it deep in her again.”
More than half of the prostituted women don´t have a fixed residence but are shipped from one town to the other. Sometimes, they don´t even know in which town they are. The women live in the brothels, eat and sleep in the same room they serve the sex buyers. They sleep approximately 5 hours a day. The rest of the time, they have to be “ready” for the sex buyers.
There is a recent medical report from a gynaecologist (Wolfgang Heide) who is working with prostituted women. The health condition of those women is catastrophic. With 30 years they are very often pre-aged. All women have persistent abdominal pains. Gastritis and frequent infections, also due to the unhealthy living conditions. And of course, all kinds of sexually transmissible diseases. The psychological traumatisation can just be stood with alcohol and pharmaceutical drugs. He reports about a growing demand for pregnant women in prostitution. Those women have to serve 15 to 40 men a day continuously until they give birth. Very often, they abandon their child and go to work as soon as possible. Sometimes 3 days after birthing of the child. Those practices are totally irresponsible for the health of the mother and her child. It can leave irreversible damages to the unborn child. And every mother knows that it takes time after giving birth to a child before sexual intercourse is possible again without pain.
Prostitution, the way it predominantly is taking place in Germany, is like women being served on a conveyer belt. Women in German brothels are considered machines that must “produce” more and more. It has become an industry that exploits women´s bodies under the worst capitalist rules, and is not at all a human relationship in any way.
Under these conditions, no German woman sees herself as capable of doing this “work.” The makeup of women in prostitution has changed. With the opening of Europe to the east, women come from the poorest regions of Europe: Romania, Bulgaria — and it’s often minorities like the Roma who live in extreme poverty. Today around 95% come from other countries. It has become a prostitution of poverty.
Who are those women, 18 years old, from Romania or Bulgaria, who come to Germany to work voluntarily in German brothels? 2 Weeks ago, I was at a conference in Stockholm and I listened to Simon Häggsström, a police officer that worked in the red light destrict for many years. He interviewed a man, who was in jail in Sweden for having trafficked women. When he came out, he went back to his home country Romania and continued sending women into brothels, probably now to Germany. Simon visited him in Bucarest for an interwiew for his book. He accepted, and they drove into the country, and the further they went, poverty became more and more visible. In some towns, there is nothing, no industry, not even agriculture people could live from. It was durty and cold. He saw women in the cold, in the streets prostituing themselves. One of her throw up, and Simon asked why? Is she sick? No, said the pimp, it is the Sperm from her stomach, she is throwing up. For 5,–€ they have to swallow it. In Germany they get 30,–€ for it. “So when I come and offer them “better” perspective, they accept it.” It is a very simple calculation.” This is than, what we call in Germany “free choice”. This pimp felt like doing a good thing to those women and with this interview he hoped for some kind of moral rehabilitation.
A social worker who has worked in Stuttgart with prostituted women for more than 20 years, says that “30% of these women are young, under 21-years old. Often they are sacrificed by their own families to support them financially. The majority doesn’t speak German, and some among them are illiterate. And frequently, they haven’t had sexual relations before. These young women come to Germany and are subjected to the perverse desires of these buyers. They aren’t capable of saying “no”, of defending themselves. They are completely overwhelmed by the situation and completely traumatized by it. Many of them ask for psychotropic drugs immediately after their first experience. They say, ‘otherwise, you couldn’t survive it.’ Some women are only there a few days and say, ‘I’m dead here, I can’t laugh anymore.’ Others endure it for years and say, ‘I have children at home, I have to support them.’ These women are very traumatized, they develop depression, nightmares and physical problems; they somatize, they have stomach pains, they get sick and suffer. They become hopeless, they don’t want to do this horrible work.”
I was asked by the Women´s Health Mental Organization to speak this year at the world conference in Dublin about the mental health situation of prostituted women in Germany. What can I say? What is the mental health situation of a women that is reduced to a piece of meat? They are totally destroyed. A woman that is working in an exit program for prostituted women told me that there are just little (very few) women exiting prostitution. They will stay until they break down physically. It is just a matter of time. I asked myself, why it is like this? Because their will has been broken. They are not existing anymore as a person that has an identity and a future they can imagine for themselves. We are talking here about complex traumatisation. Free-Choice prostitution is even worse than forced prostitution: because the trafficker is not a stranger but somebody they love or someone from their own family. Exiting prostitution causes conflicts deep inside.
Legalizing prostitution is also a sever problem for Europe and the social solidarity among all European citizen. Germany doesn´t seem to have a problem in using the most vulnerable women from the disadvantaged EU-countries, to exploit them sexually and reject them, when they are totally traumatized.
Currently, the politicians realized that something went wrong with this law and made little changes. Like trying to correct 10% of the “wrongs” done. Since July 2017 we have a new law called „prostitutes protection law“, were some regulation are being implemented:
- Brothel keepers now need a permit or license to run a brothel.
- Prostitutes have to register
- Every 2 years, they have to attend individual health counselling.
- Condoms are now mandatory and Johns who insist on intercourse without condoms can now face high fines.
- Only the very worst outcome of prostitution in Germany, such as flat rate brothels or gang bang offers are now forbidden.
But very important requests from experts: such as a minimum age of 21 or to protect pregnant women from prostitution, have not been considered.
A brothel keeper association has introduced a “quality seal” which is awarded to brothels. In these brothels, all women are said to be working voluntary and independently, and there is allegedly no crime there. This sends a wrong signal to the punters: like, they don´t have to feel guilty and don´t have to worry. Every thing is “ethically correct”.
And what is the state advising to the women in prostitution? Lets see a video supported by the German Ministry of emancipation and health: http://lola-nrw.de/video3.html?l=en
4 weeks ago, Angela Merkel has been re-elected as our chancellor. At the same time, we witnessed the most boring election campaign ever. Many important topics were not addressed at all and prostitution and trafficking in women was absolutely not a topic, it was simply not on the political agenda, it was not discussed, totally ignored. Why? It´s a serious problem!
I was very surprised, that some female politicians from the left wing, who blocked constantly important changes in the prostitutions law are now participating in the „metoo“ campaign. They declare, that they were also victims of sexual harassment. It is good that they talk about it, but it would be even better if they could see the direct connection between prostitution and pornography, that objectifies women and gives men the right to use them, and the sexual harassment women experience every day of their lives and every were? On one hand they were protecting the objectification of the women in prostitution and are now shocked, that men perceive them and treat them as sexual object in business.
Prostitution falls back on women who are not in prostitution. 50% of the punters are in relationships, so women are being cheated by their partners and husbands: Do the calculation yourself: every day 1.2 Million men buy sex. They are not the same every day. We must realize, that Germany is a country were millions of women are being cheated on.
I know personally one politician who voted for the Swedish Model at the European Parliament and against it in her own political party. Well, as a psychologist, I would say, she has a split personality. But she doesn´t see it as a contradiction. She says, I will not have a majority, this idea will fail, so I´m not fighting for it. In fact, this is the definition of opportunism. Many politicians are scared of getting a crack in their career. They don´t want to risk anything, and so they will not fight for necessary changes. But this attitude expresses a democratic crisis. These people are producing a severe global problem: they are feeding the rise of the right-wing extremists that we can observe not only in Europe but all over the word.
There are some images of the past year that were very upsetting: the image of Donald Trump surrounded by dozens of men, signing a decree against abortion. Then the law signed by Putin, authorizing domestic violence. And the rise of radical Islamism oppressing women in many Muslim countries is frightening.
At the World Congress of Women’s Mental Health, the message was clear: the healthy and sustainable development of a society depends on the mental health of women. And women’s mental health is directly linked to respect for their rights in a society: gender equality, the protection from all forms of violence, women’s reproductive rights, and access to health care. Women’s mental health should be a priority in the political agendas of every country. We are still a long way off, and we are seeing even a degradation of women’s rights worldwide! A strong appeal was issued at this congress: „Female psychiatrists and psychotherapists from around the world, become political!“
When we think about legalizing prostitution, we have to ask ourselves one important question first: can the vagina be used as a working tool? Can you use the vagina as a vacuum cleaner pipe or a plastic tubing? Medically seen, it is not possible, because women´s sexual organs are connected through the vegetative nerve system with our entire body, much more than men´s sexual organs are. It´s like a sun that radiates into every corner of our body. That´s why, if a woman is touched by the person she really loves, even if it is just her neck or her hand, she can get excited. Our vagina is also directly connected to our brain. You cannot disconnect the vagina from the body and the brain. Anatomically, it is impossible. Prostitution is only possible in a state of pathological dissociation.
Prostitution is never a choice, it is always sexual exploitation. Women want to be loved, not to be fucked. Fighting for the abolition of prostitution means sending a message of love to all women. In a time of fundamental changes in human history, in the age of digitalization and sex robots, our human values are put to the test. We need to preserve them and for our relationships, we should choose love.
The fact that we turn a blind eye to the violence some women are exposed to sheds a light on many dysfunctions in our society.
The necessity of the abolition of prostitution is still being questioned, even by those who call themselves feminists, although the issue is not at all complicated to understand. Just ask any politician if he would want his wife or daughter to be prostituted. The answer will be very clear: NO! So what does that mean? Are there women who are good…. Or rather… bad enough for prostitution and some are not. Can we allow dividing women into distinct categories?
It is also the reflection of a society that splits itself. It is treating humanly a number of people who “are like them” and is much less human, even cruel, to others. So, what does it say about us if we are no longer affected by the suffering of the other? We are, as said Derrida, in war with our compassion.
To accept the evil is to surrender to the violence perpetrated against women. It means accepting to live in an unjust society. It is the reflection of a society losing its soul. Why and how is this possible, especially in a so-called democratic society? Why is Germany not able to see fundamental human rights violations? Why does this society, especially with its historical crime background, stay blind towards violence against women?
You must know that sexual violence is the most severe trauma a woman can experience. It breaks her, it leaves severe damages on her. It is worse than a soldier coming back from war with a PTSD. Women who have been raped are traumatized much deeper. They say: “I feel like shit”, “I feel so ashamed”, “I hate myself”.
As a trauma therapist, I know that when you deny the reality, there must be a trauma behind that has not been overcome. You don´t want to look at it because it is something that will call up pain and fear.
When we talk about trauma, we have to understand the dynamics of trauma. The first rule is to keep silent, to shut up about what has been done to someone. When we talk about trauma, we also have to think about individual trauma and collective trauma and how both of them affect our community. So I am asking myself which trauma German women have not overcome so that today they stay in a collective state of denial?
– Has it something to do with the mass rapes of the German women by the liberating soldiers after the second world war?
– Has it something to do with the sexual abuse that is still happening on a large scale in Germany?
– The mental violence or sexual harassment that women are permanently facing?
This mental process of denying trauma and repressing pain has been apparently well-practiced by the Germans and it seems to have been passed from one generation to the next.
If you don’t overcome a trauma, it will reoccur, as Janet already said 100 years ago. So, I ask myself if this silence when it comes to prostitution has something to do with our history? Women were raped, and they had to keep silent. Now, their men rape, and they keep silent again.
Half an our before I took the train to the airport, I advised one of my patient who was sexually abused as a child and continued as an adult in this legal and “free-choice” prostitution. She is German. I helped her to exit, but now, she has fallen into a severe anorexia. She doesn´t eat hardly anything and her state is critical. Like she eat´s one little peace of bred a week, nothing more. Why now? Now she is free, she could enjoy her life! She uses to anorexia as a form of protection: now SHE is controlling her body, she is deciding what is getting into her body, now she says: “I will let nothing get into my body anymore!”
What is prostitution? Prostitution means: a man decides upon your body, he says “I want that, you will do that!”. The woman has no control over her body. Prostitution, and it doesn´t matter how you practice it, is a highly traumatizing situation, because you have to give up yourself. You sell your body for a certain time to be used by a stranger. I don´t know if my patient will be alive, when I come back next week. I decided not to force her to go to the hospital, were she would get artificially feeded. And if she dies, who will be guilty? People will say that she died because she was mentally sick or they will perhaps blame me and ask why I wasn´t able to fix her? But nobody will look at the reasons that caused her mental disturbance. Nobody will question the sex buyers.
The German Modell is creating Hell on Earth! The lives and the rights of those women are sacrificed, but for what? Are they defending our democracy? Is it to protect our land from invasions or terrorism? No, those women are sacrificed so that some men can have sex whenever they want, the way they want and with whom they want. And this is the problem. We have to focus on the sex buyer.
The sex buyer is a social construction it is not a fate. The numbers all over the world prove it: In England, you have 7% of the men who are sex buyers, in Spain 39%, 37% in Japan, 73% in Thailand… It is a result of the unequal gender education. Prostitution does not resolve men´s problem, it is increasing their fear of entering into an equal relationship to women. The Sex-Robot-Brothels who do already exist in Germany and Spain will separate men even more from real women and women´s sexual desire. It blocks them up in a parallel world disconnected from women´s reality.
When we talk about prostitution, we have to think about what kind of a society we want, not only about harm reduction. We need a new generation of men that does not resort to sexual exploitation and domination of women to define itself. It is false to think that male sexuality is not controllable. Men have to learn a new way to deal with frustration.
Normalizing prostitution means cementing the inequality between men and women and accepting violence against women. Regulating prostitution is not a solution. It sends a wrong signal: it says to men, that it´s okay to buy a woman. It determines with a certificate which form of sexual abuse and sexual violence is recognized as normal by a society and protects it by the law.
That´s why, also Germany, needs the Swedish model.
Dr. Ingeborg Kraus – Clinical Psychologist and Expert in Psychotraumatology
The Conference has been registered and translated into Spanisch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mmaybn3HP_Y
Edited by Firdes Ceylan
Some of the Pictures are from Manuela Schon.
 Manuela Schon: Legalized prostitution turned Germany into the bordello of europe, we should be ashamed, 09.05.2016, in Feministcurrent: http://www.feministcurrent.com/2016/05/09/legalization-has-turned-germany-into-the-bordello-of-europe-we-should-be-ashamed/
 Michael Jürgs: Sklavenmarkt Europa, 2014, Bertelsmann, P. 327.
 Chantal Louis : Die Folgen der Prostitution , Alice Schwarzer HG, Prostitution, ein Deutscher Skandal, 2013, KIWI, p. 70-87.
 Der Spiegel: Bordell Deutschland. 27.05.2013 . http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/human-trafficking-persists-despite-legality-of-prostitution-in-germany-a-902533-2.html
 Radio Interview with the Dominatrix Ellen Templin, 08.03.2010. http://abolition2014.blogspot.de/2014/05/interview-mit-einer-domina.html
 Dr. Lutz Besser: Stellungnahme zur Anhörung zum Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Regelung des Prostitutionsgewerbes sowie zu Schutz von in der Prostitution tätigen Personen. 04.06.2016. https://www.trauma-and-prostitution.eu/2016/06/04/lutz-besser-stellungnahme-zum-prostituiertenschutzg/
 Manfred Paulus: Menschenhandel, 2014, Verlag Klemm+Oelschläger, p. 107.
 Manfred Paulus: Menschenhandel, 2014, Verlag Klemm+Oelschläger, p. 112.
 Geneviève Duché: Non au système prostitutionnel, 2015, Editions Persée, p. 170.
 Bundeskriminalamt: Menschenhandel. Bundeslagebild 2015. https://www.bka.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Publikationen/JahresberichteUndLagebilder/Menschenhandel/menschenhandelBundeslagebild2015.html
 Udo Gerheim, die Produktion des Freiers, 2012, Transcript, p. 7.
 Francine Sporenda interviews Huschke Mau, in „Nordic Model Now!“, October 17, 2017.
 Zumbeck, Sibylle: « Die Prävalenz traumatischer Erfahrungen, Posttraumatische Belastungsstörungen und Dissoziation bei Prostituierten », Hamburg, 2001.
 Studie von Schröttle & Müller 2004 in: Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend : Gender Datenreport, Kapitel 10: Gewalthandlungen und Gewaltbetroffenheit von Frauen und Männern, 2004, p. 651-652.
 Radio Interview mit Ellen Templin am 08.03.2010: http://www.wueste-welle.de/redaktion/view/id/114/tab/weblog/article/34860/Interview_mit_einer_Domina.html
 Dr. Anita Heiliger: Zur Realität in der Prostitution und ihre gesellschaftlichen Auswirkungen, 2015. https://www.trauma-and-prostitution.eu/2015/01/23/zur-realitaet-in-der-prostitution-und-ihre-gesellschaftlichen-auswirkungen/
 Dr. Wolfgang Heide: Stellungnahme zur öffentlichen Anhörung zur „Regulierung des Prostitutionsgewerbes“ im Ausschuss für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Gesundheit im Deutschen Bundestag am 06. Juni 2016 https://www.trauma-and-prostitution.eu/2016/06/05/stellungnahme-von-wolfgang-heide-facharzt-fuer-gynaekologie-und-geburtshilfe/
 Manfred Paulus: Menschenhandel, 2004, Verlag Klemm+Oelschläger, p. 109.
 Simon Häggström: Shadow´s Law: The True Story of a Swedish Detective Inspector Fighting Prostitution. November 2016. Bullet Point Publishing.
 TV Interview with Sabine Constabe, 17.03.2013 in SWR1 Leute:
 Katharina Sass (Hg.): Mythos „Sexarbeit“. Argumente gegen Prostitution und Sexkauf. Ed. PapyRossa. Sept. 2017. P. 134-147.
 Francine Sporenda interviews Huschke Mau, in „Nordic Model Now!“, October 17, 2017.
 International Association for Women´s Mental Health: http://iawmh.org/images/WMH2017-ProgrammeFINALreduced.pdf
 Naomi Wolf: Vagina. A New Biography. Ed. HarperCollins. 2012.
 Claudine Legardinier: Prostitution: une guerre contre les femmes, 2015, Editions Syllepse, p. 95.
 Claudine Legardinier und Said Bouamama: Les clients de la prostitution, 2006, Presses de la Renaissance, p. 235.
 Udo Gerheim: die Produktion des Freiers, 2012, Transcript, p. 297.